# The Solar-Lunar-Earth calendar of Magura cave. A very sophisticated calendar created some 14 000 years ago. Part 1

Only a bit of theoretical information: at some point of our development as mankind we started needing a way to plan our activities. Therefore we came to the idea (or we were granted the idea) of reliably repeating natural processes which can be counted. This led to the creation of various calendars depending on the cycles they count. Since this point we can really talk about civilizations.

The paintings at Magura cave have been created at two stages separate by a very large time span – some 28 000 years between the stages. I have described the reasons why I think so in the following publication:

#### Consecutive animal species and appearance of previously unseen conceptions determine two stages of creation of Magura cave paintings. Continuation of the painting’s style and meaning over a large time span.

The paintings of the first stage are of a smaller number and contain a smaller variety of ideas. I think they were created somewhere between 43 000 and 42 000 BCE shortly after the beginning of the cosmic era of Virgo.

The later paintings contain a number of new concepts including variety of numbers types and numeric operations. I think that the newer paintings were created somewhere about the end of the following coscim era of Virgo – around 14 600 BCE.

If you are interested in the numeric expressions in Magura cave, you can read the following publication:

#### Numeric record system of early history: Numbers among Magura cave paintings. Recognition and types. Numeric expressions. Numeric operations. Similarities to Egyptian numeric system.

The concepts of numbers and numeric operations are a must if one is to develop and use a calendar, because calendars are based on the counting of repeating processes. With the publication about numeric records in Magura cave I prove that those people had sophisticated enough knowledge to create a calendar.

Now we move to the calendar itself:

*The Solar-Lunar-Earth calendar of Magura cave*

To make it more clear, I have redrawn the scene:

*The calendar redrawn*

Of course, some slight inaccuracies may appear in the redrawn version due to the process itself and due to small uncertainties on the very walls of the cave.

You understand that the calendar in this form is too complex to start reading it right away. Therefore, I suggest starting from only one symbol and adding one more on every next step.

*The Sun*

It is very easy to recognize the Sun.

Then, let’s look at the symbols around the Sun:

*The four symbols around the Sun*

I am sure you are starting to guess what these symbols mean but I want to carry the process in a systematic way so I am going to compare the symbols.

*The four symbols compared*

The middle part of symbol 2 is equal in size and shape to symbol 1. Symbol 3 is created by the vertical division of Symbols 2. Symbol 4 is also created by the vertical division of symbol 2.

This means that we observe four manifestations of the same thing.

Now, we have to try and answer the question: what is it which is around the Sun and has four manifestations?

There are four seasons on Earth and these are four different manifestations of our planet. Between every two seasons there is a specific position of our planet around the Sun – an equinox or a solstice.

As the four symbols determin positions but periods, they represent the equinoxes and the solstices. Now we need to recognize one of these positions.

The easiest is to start with the closest one as it is the most distinguishable:

*The closest position to the Sun*

We know, or at least we should know, from school that during the winter, on the 22 of December the Earth is at its closest position to the Sun. Thus we recognize this symbol as the winter solstice.

Bulgarians have one more way to recognize this position:

*Survachka [survachka]*

Bulgarians have the ritual tool Survachka which is used on the first day of the New year. Now, according to Gregorian calendar, the first day of the New year is on the 1st of January. But in ancient times it used to be on the 25th of December, i.e. on the winter solstice as the day goes shorter till this date and then it goes longer therefore this date used to be decided to be the birth of the Sun and the birth of the New year.

The ritual tool Survachka is derived from the painting of the Goddess-Mother:

*The Goddess-Mother of Magura*

*The order of stylization of symbols*

Now, Christmas is on the 25th of December when it is said that Jesus Christ was born. He was born by the Mother of God aka Holy Mother and Divine Mother which all are edited names of the Goddess-Mother.

Therefore Bulgarians use a symbol of the Goddess-Mother on Christmas and this tradition is as old as the paintings of Magura cave and as the cult of the Goddess-Mother itself (42 000 BCE according to data) – maybe the oldest ritual on Earth.

Now, once we know which of the symbols corresponds to the winter solstice, we can recognize the rest of the symbols:

*Earth’s positions on the calendar of Magura*

Then we come to another symbol:

*The leap year*

The symbols here is tally counting meaning that four elements of something complete the whole process. The position of the symbol above the whole calendar means that the symbol refers to the whole calendar. Thus we know that four cycles of the calendar complete the process, therefore the symbol is related to the leap year.

So far we saw a number of very advanced conception:

- Heliocentric model – the Earth rotates around the Sun;
- Those people knew the distance between Earth and Sun;
- Those people knew the exact duration of the year which is 365.25 days.

Well, this is very advanced knowledge especially for the periods around 14 600 BCE.

*The orbital Lunar month*

There are 27 dots in a solid block under the Sun. The orbital period of the Moon lasts for 27 days but it is impossible to observe it during everyday activities – it has to be calculated with the help of Earth’s spin and Earth’s rotation around the Sun and the formula is really complex. Therefore knowing this period is a very complex task and a sign of great scientific achievements in the deep past.

This period is called a sidereal month and it is the time it takes the Moon to return to its formes position among stars.

We see two horizontal lines above the sidereal month. These lines mean „multiply by 3“ and thus we get three months between two positions of the Earth. This means that one season contains three months – obviously this idea is very old – from the times of Magura cave paintings. And there are four seasons in this calendar which means that it was invented along the Moderate latitude, i.e. at the central and northern parts of the Balkan Peninsula where one can tell different seasons.

But there is an issue. As the sidereal month has 27 days, there are 13.5 such months in a year. Let’s see:

*The rotating star*

There is an object in the calendar with a round shape. It means that it rotates, i.e. repeats its cycle every time it is complete. There are 13 „rays“ in this star, respectively 13 segments between them. These are 13 periods in a cycle. Here we find the 13 sidereal months in the year but we still miss half a month to complete the year to 13.5 sidereal months.

*Half a month*

There it is – on the right side of the calendar.

We have a block of 9 elements and the two lines above which make the total of 27. Then, we have the symbol „tip over“ which means that we have to send the two lines under the block of 9 elements. Thus we get division by 2. Now we have 27/2 which is exactly half a sidereal month.

Now we come to the question, why was it necessary to use sidereal months which cause a lot more complicated calculations and operations. Now we use the Gregorian calendar which contains 12 months of roughly 30 days each and it makes life very easy. Yes, but the Gregorian calendar corresponds to no cosmic reality. The 1st of May, the 1st of June and the 1st of any month means nothing in terms of heavenly bodies’ positions.

And the sidereal month of 27 days corresponds to exact positions of the Moon among stars and between Earth and Sun.

If we chose the 1st of a month to be when the Moon is between Earth and Sun, then it will be there again on the 1st of any month. This is useful when we want to plan our activities as there are three basic ingredients of everything – spirit (energy), soul (the description of the construction) and body (the space where it takes place). The Sun is the energy (spirit), the Moon is the soul and the Earth is the Body. Their mutual positions determine whether it is time to plan, to start, to harvest or to finish. Hence a mag (mag is the ancient word for an educated person) has to pay attention to the mutual position of heavenly bodies if they want to do their job successfully.

Now it is clear why those people preferred a rather complex calendar.

The people who created Magura cave paintings used another Lunar month as well – the synodic month which has 29 days and is the time between two equal appearances of the Moon – full moons, new moons, etc. These months are very useful in planning of everyday activities as it is very easy to see the phases of the Moon.

We see the synodic month in a close scene:

*The scene where the synodic month is found*

In this scene we have a crescent:

*The crescent*

As it is a crescent, this means two things:

- It is half a moon so it represents the half of a month;
- As it is new moon symbol it is related to the synodic month because synodic months are determined by the repetition of the Lunar phases.

Now we know the scene talks about the half of the 29-days period which is 14.5 days.

*The half of the synodic month*

Read it from the right side to the left side because this is the direction of reading of Magura cave paintings: half a synodic month – > 14.5 -> end, completion. It means that half a synodic month contains 14.5 days and this is true. This was their way to say they had two types of months.

There is something more beneath:

*The week*

There are 7 vertical lines combined in a single symbol. Then (to the left side) we have two symbols of completion. This means that the week ends two times per half a synodic month and this is also true. Now we know that those people used weeks as well.

But this is not everything, there is still more:

*The menstruation cycle*

The same scene perfectly fits the stages of the menstruation cycle and this is normal for Magura cave paintings – they represent many manifestations of the same principle at the same time – you only have to change your viewpoint to the scene and you get the description of another manifestation.

The menstruation cycle is one of the manifestations of the principle of creation of the universe and it is related to Lunar phases and to the number 29 and its derivatives – 7 and 14.5.

Because of this, one has to keep in mind not only the sidereal month but also the synodic month and you will see how this makes the calendar even more complex.

We can look again at the calendar but this time we can understand the Sun as the Earth and now we have the four phases of Moon around it. The number 27 says it takes 27 days to complete the rotation and the tally counting above means the following: the exact duration of the sidereal month is 27.3 days but sidereal months of 27 days are used instead. Therefore every 3 months need 1 more day to match the exact position of the moon. It is similar to leap year but it concerns the sidereal month – on every four months one has to add 1 more day.

This demonstrates that the same scene can be read at many levels of information and understanding.

Now, as we understand the central painting as the Earth, we see that there is a spiral around it. The spiral is drawn by one of the rays. If we measure the angle of this ray we get the following:

*The inclination of the axis*

This measurement matches very well the actual inclination of the Earth’s axis which is 23.45 degrees. We may suggest that the axis draws a spiral around the Earth.

Indeed, due to the precession of equinoxes, the angle of inclination varies and goes back to its starting degree during a cycle of 25 920 years. Because of this, the two poles constantly change their position along the star sky. Our modern astronomes have calculated the route of the Northern pole along the star sky and it looks like this:

*The precession spiral drawn by the north pole*

It means that Magura cave paintings depict the precession of equinoxes as well.

Indeed the spiral represents the path of earth. It may be path of the day, the path of the year and the path of precession. Why? Because the Earth rotates and moves in space thus creating spirals rather than circles.

The spiral in Magura is intersected in 24 places by the rays. Therefore the path of the Earth is divided into 24 parts. This is true for the day where we have 24 hours. This is true for the year where we have 24 halves of synodic months. This is the place where we come to the integration of the synodic month containing 29 days into this calendar which contains also the sidereal months with their 27 days. A very, very complex but completely integrated calendar.

And this is still not everything. We have the precession cycle which contains 12 cosmic eras every one of them lasting for 2 160 years. The 24 segments of the spiral represent 24 halves of cosmic eras.

Part 1 finishes here.