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The complete catalog of all Magura cave paintings – creation, use and perspectives.

юни 23, 2016
figure 55 all female human shapes in Magura cave

Abstract:

The research of eng. Kiril Kirilov on the meaning and significance of Magura cave paintings started in the beginning of 2008 and after creating a significant amount of materials, analyses and interpretations it became necessary to create a basic documentation background which is to allow for scientific presentation of the study. Therefore it was obligatory to have all the paintings documented so they can be used as a reference and be cited.

The first step to the creation of the catalog was to create a complete map of Magura cave paintings which was to allow for systematic counting and arrangement of the arrays of the catalog. After the map was created, every separate painting was extracted or completely redrawn, depending on the case, and inserted in its respective place in the catalog.

In order to make the catalog more useful and convenient, two more sections were added. The first of them is a legend and a reference of the location of every painting. The last section resembles groups of similar paintings which is meant to facilitate comparison among Magura cave paintings as well as to other paintings, petroglyphs, etc.

As a result of the work, it is now possible to scientifically search similar glyphs around the World, compare them to Magura cave paintings and make solid conclusions based on reliable references.

Full title:

The creation and use of a complete catalog of all Magura cave paintings as a separate scientific tool as well as a referential tool and source for various studies, comparisons, analyses. Goals, methods and results. Opportunities created through the process.

 

Short title:

The complete catalog of all Magura cave paintings – creation, use and perspectives.

 

Author list

Author:

eng. Kiril Lyubchov Kirilov

Affiliation:

Board member of NGO “Archaeological society of Belogradchik”, Bulgaria, Vidin district, Belogradchik, 3900, 8 Petko Kovacha str.

Corresponding author:

eng. Kiril Lyubchov Kirilov

kirilov_kl@abv.bg

 

Introduction:

The study of the meaning and significance of Magura cave paintings done by eng. Kiril Kirilov started in the beginning of 2008 and had the only aim to decode the information which had been written in the paintings and delivered through them. Later on during the process of the study it was noticed that many of Magura cave symbols are exact or very similar analogs of symbols used in various traditions, teachings, philosophies and religions. An example of this is the correspondence with the symbols of alchemy as it is shown on Figure 1.

figure 1 alchemy comparison

Fig. 1. Comparison between Magura cave paintings and the symbols of alchemy.

This was the point where the idea that Magura cave paintings probably served as a library of knowledge and a source of origin of various teachings, philosophies and religions started to form and this idea was additionally developed. It was suggested that if the idea was correct, the spread of knowledge and culture from Magura to the outer world would have left more traces including spread of the name Magura at the affected places and regions. This was studied and about 2 400 places with the name Magura or very similar names like Magora, Mahura, Masura, Mapura, etc. were found in a vast region around the globe. The results are shown in Figure 2 where 400 of the places were marked on the world map.

figure 2 Magura name map

Fig. 2. The spread of the name Magura around the globe.

The red marks represent exact analogs of the name and the rest of the colors represent very similar names. The total number of the red marks is 200.

New data was collected in the process of the search for the name as it was noticed that except for populated places the name Magura is used for three types of sites: hills, caves and springs/water bodies. This lead to the suggestion that all of them had a single place of origin from which the name Magura and its derivatives had inherited their basic meanings. The idea was that there had been an initial Magura which was the source of the spread and therefore Magura names around the World tended to refer to only three types of sites which had once been features of the source. It is a fact that from all sites with the name Magura all over the World only Magura cave in the Northwest of Bulgaria combines the three features – it is a cave, it is inside of a hill and lake has formed near it. Therefore, so far Magura cave is the only candidate in the world to be the source of the name’s spread.

An additional proof of the accuracy of the culture spread suggestion was the presence of similar divine entities with similar names in regions of high concentration of the name Magura. The fairy Ma-Gu in China has a similar name, she is related to caves, her most important sanctuary is on the shore of a sacred lake, she governs family and fertility and she offers protection and grants knowledge and skills to adepts. There is the same entity but already a goddess in South Korea with the name Mago. In Slavic mythology there is the goddess Magura.

These coincidences make it logical to suggest that Magura cave has served as the base and origin of a worldwide spread of culture and knowledge.

In order to test this suggestion additionally, it was necessary to create a reliable document which includes all paintings of Magura cave so they can be referenced, cited and compared to other paintings and glyphs around the World. The intention is to research whether there are similar or even exact analogs of Magura cave paintings in the region of high concentration of the name.

An adequate type of a document is a catalog.

It will serve more purposes. It will allow for statistic studies of the paintings – numbers of male and female figures, number of symbols, comparisons among the paintings, visualization and presentation, creating groups of similar paintings, etc.

Once the complete map of all Magura cave paintings (1) was created it was possible to count all the paintings and arrange them in the appropriate way, thus the catalog could be created. Many of the redrawn images of the paintings were extracted from the map file and others, which were too affected by distortion due to the walls’ relief, were additionally redrawn from their individual pictures taken at earlier stages of the process. In this way it was assured that the catalog would contain projections as perpendicular as possible which was needed to represent the exact shape of the paintings.

The catalog contains three sections.

Section 1 resembles an index to all the paintings showing them in their respective segments of the wall and in their natural order. Leaders and other means assign numbers to the paintings so they can be traced in the catalog and in the map (1). Note that the numbers shown do not count only paintings but they also count separate elements. The total number of the paintings is 712 and the total number of physically unbound elements is 1 468. The catalog and the map use a different numbering system which represent the least amount of numbers which are sufficient to create clarity and traceability. Therefore the numbers in the map and in the catalog reach up to 1 031 and correspond to one another.

In a scientific research one can use both tools – to determine the position and surroundings of a painting thus creating a suggestion for its meaning and to clarify its exact shape and/or reference it with the help of the catalog or even to determine the group of similar paintings it belongs to.

Figures 3 to 22 show the indexing of the printings in their related segments of the cave’s walls. It has to be kept in mind that the direction of reading in Magura cave is from the right hand to the left hand therefore the numbering of the paintings increases from right side to left side and the figures start with the largest number.

figure 3 index paintings 988-1031

Fig. 3. Index of Magura cave paintings from number 988 to 1031.

figure 4 index paintings 928-987

Fig. 4. Index of Magura cave paintings from number 928 to 987.

figure 5 index paintings 868-927

Fig. 5. Index of Magura cave paintings from number 868 to 927.

figure 6 index paintings 774-867

Fig. 6. Index of Magura cave paintings from number 774 to 867.

figure 7 index paintings 730-773

Fig. 7. Index of Magura cave paintings from number 730 to 773.

figure 8 index paintings 691-729

Fig. 8. Index of Magura cave paintings from number 691 to 729.

figure 9 index paintings 625-690

Fig. 9. Index of Magura cave paintings from number 625 to 690.

figure 10 index paintings 558-624

Fig. 10. Index of Magura cave paintings from number 558 to 624.

figure 11 index paintings 499-557

Fig. 11. Index of Magura cave paintings from number 499 to 557.

figure 12 index paintings 419-498

Fig. 12. Index of Magura cave paintings from number 419 to 498.

figure 13 index paintings 364-418

Fig. 13. Index of Magura cave paintings from number 364 to 418.

figure 14 index paintings 328-363

Fig. 14. Index of Magura cave paintings from number 328 to 363.

figure 15 index paintings 254-327

Fig. 15. Index of Magura cave paintings from number 254 to 327.

figure 16 index paintings 209-251

Fig. 16. Index of Magura cave paintings from number 209 to 251.

figure 17 index paintings 165-208

Fig. 17. Index of Magura cave paintings from number 165 to 208.

figure 18 index paintings 144-164

Fig. 18. Index of Magura cave paintings from number 144 to 164.

figure 19 index paintings 107-143

Fig. 19. Index of Magura cave paintings from number 107 to 143.

figure 20 index paintings 82-106

Fig. 20. Index of Magura cave paintings from number 82 to 106.

figure 21 index paintings 12-81

Fig. 21. Index of Magura cave paintings from number 12 to 81.

figure 22 index paintings 1-11

Fig. 22. Index of Magura cave paintings from number 1 to 11.

Section 2 is the core of the catalog as it contains every single painting or element found in Magura cave. These paintings and elements are presented in ascending order or numbering and basically follow the natural order of appearance in the gallery. The reason for not being possible to follow the exact order of appearance is because in many groups and scenes the paintings do not have linear disposition but they are organized on a numbers of levels and often seem to have random positions. Despite of this, every single painting is traceable and generally follows the natural order of appearance.

In some cases, when there is a group of physically unbound elements which form a logical entity (paintings), the whole group is shown first and then all of its elements are presented.

The core of the catalog is represented by Figures 23 to 42.

figure 23 catalog numbers 001 047

Fig. 23. List of Magura cave paintings. Numbers from 1 to 47.

figure 24 catalog numbers 048 097

Fig. 24. List of Magura cave paintings. Numbers from 48 to 97.

figure 25 catalog numbers 098 138

Fig. 25. List of Magura cave paintings. Numbers from 98 to 138.

figure 26 catalog numbers 139 183

Fig. 26. List of Magura cave paintings. Numbers from 139 to 183.

figure 27 catalog numbers 184 234

Fig. 27. List of Magura cave paintings. Numbers from 184 to 234.

figure 28 catalog numbers 235 295

Fig. 28. List of Magura cave paintings. Numbers from 235 to 295.

figure 29 catalog numbers 294 346

Fig. 29. List of Magura cave paintings. Numbers from 294 to 346.

figure 30 catalog numbers 347 413

Fig. 30. List of Magura cave paintings. Numbers from 347 to 413.

figure 31 catalog numbers 414 470

Fig. 31. List of Magura cave paintings. Numbers from 414 to 470.

figure 32 catalog numbers 471 508

Fig. 32. List of Magura cave paintings. Numbers from 471 to 508.

figure 33 catalog numbers 509 562

Fig. 33. List of Magura cave paintings. Numbers from 509 to 562.

figure 34 catalog numbers 563 621

Fig. 34. List of Magura cave paintings. Numbers from 563 to 621.

figure 35 catalog numbers 622 688

Fig. 35. List of Magura cave paintings. Numbers from 622 to 688.

figure 36 catalog numbers 689 739

Fig. 36. List of Magura cave paintings. Numbers from 689 to 739.

figure 37 catalog numbers 740 786

Fig. 37. List of Magura cave paintings. Numbers from 740 to 786.

figure 38 catalog numbers 787 827

Fig. 38. List of Magura cave paintings. Numbers from 787 to 827.

figure 39 catalog numbers 826 869

Fig. 39. List of Magura cave paintings. Numbers from 826 to 869.

figure 40 catalog numbers 870 918

Fig. 40. List of Magura cave paintings. Numbers from 870 to 918.

figure 41 catalog numbers 919 1008

Fig. 41. List of Magura cave paintings. Numbers from 919 to 1008.

figure 42 catalog numbers 1009 1031

Fig. 42. List of Magura cave paintings. Numbers from 1009 to 1031.

Section 3 reveals groups of similar paintings. The similarity in this case is determined on the similar construction and appearance of the figures. Inside the groups individual paintings are arranged in order of increasing complexity where it has been possible to be done. Different arrangements can be suggested. The one presented here does not claim to be the only possible way.

This section is useful as a researcher can know all the similar paintings without the need to go through all the list of the paintings. This facilitates comparison among Magura cave paintings as well as to other paintings located everywhere around the World as the paintings has to be recognized as similar to a particular group and then more specific examples can be defined inside the group. This section is also convenient when a researcher is to study the features and meaning of a whole class of paintings.

This section of the catalog is represented by Figures 43 to 68. Numbers under the paintings in this section reveal the position of the paintings in the list presented in Section 2 thus making every painting traceable.

figure 43 all paintings of animals in Magura cave

Fig. 43. All paintings of animals in Magura cave.

figure 44 human shapes shown to perform purposeful activities

Fig. 44. Human figures shown to perform purposeful activities together with paintings which seem to be the geometrical base for the bodies.

figure 45 comb- and fishbone shaped symbols

Fig 45. Comb- and fishbone shaped symbols.

figure 46 claviforms and possible numeric records Example 1

Fig. 46. Claviforms and possible numeric records. Example 1.

figure 47 claviforms and possible numeric records Example 2

Fig. 47. Claviforms and possible numeric records. Example 2.

figure 48 claviforms and transition to chequer records

Fig. 48. Claviforms and transition to chequer records.

figure 49 chequer records

Fig. 49. Chequer records.

figure 50 all cross symbols in Magura cave

Fig. 50. All cross symbols in Magura cave.

figure 51 all X-shaped symbols in Magura cave

Fig. 51. All X-shaped symbols in Magura cave.

figure 52 five-rays star symbols in Magura cave

Fig. 52. Five-rays star symbols in Magura cave.

figure 53 all circles and circular shapes in Magura cave

Fig. 53. All circles and circular shapes in Magura cave.

figure 54 all male human shapes in Magura cave

Fig. 54. All male human shapes in Magura cave.

figure 55 all female human shapes in Magura cave

Fig. 55. All female human shapes in Magura cave.

figure 56 paintings resembling the symbol of Mars and man Part 1

Fig. 56. Paintings resembling the symbol of Mars and man. Part 1.

figure 57 paintings resembling the symbol of Mars and man Part 2

Fig. 57. Paintings resembling the symbol of Mars and man. Part 2.

figure 58 paintings resembling the symbol of Mars and man Part 3

Fig. 58. Paintings resembling the symbol of Mars and man. Part 3.

figure 59 paintings resembling the symbol of Venus and women

Fig. 59. Paintings resembling the symbol of Venus and women.

figure 60 T symbols of Magura cave Part 1

Fig. 60. T symbols of Magura cave. Part 1.

figure 61 T symbols of Magura cave Part 2

Fig. 61. T symbols of Magura cave. Part 2.

figure 62 T symbols of Magura cave and a number of their variations

Fig. 62. T symbols of Magura cave and a number of their variations.

figure 63 all Y-shapes symbols in Magura cave

Fig. 63. All Y-shaped symbols in Magura cave.

figure 64 all V and hut-shaped symbols in Magura cave

Fig. 64. All V and hut-shaped symbols in Magura cave.

figure 65 zig-zag symbols in Magura cave Part 1

Fig. 65. Zig-zag symbols in Magura cave. Part 1.

figure 66 zig-zag symbols in Magura cave Part 2

Fig. 66. Zig-zag symbols in Magura cave. Part 2.

figure 67 vertical zig-zag symbols in Magura cave

Fig. 67. Vertical zig-zag symbols in Magura cave.

figure 68 star symbols in Magura cave

Fig. 68. Star symbols in Magura cave.

With the creation of this catalog with its three sections it is now possible to scientifically study issues related to Magura cave paintings.

 

References:

The creation and use of a complete map of all Magura cave paintings as a separate scientific tool as well as a premise to the creation and use of a complete catalog of all Magura cave paintings. Goals, methods and results. Opportunities created through the process., Kiril Lyubchov Kirilov, June 21, 2016, ID 494

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